The long-term neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to selective M-and N-cholinolytics.
Results of researches showed that prenatal exposure of M-and N-cholinolytics to pregnant female rats at 9-19 days of pregnancy could produce the long-term neurochemical changes in development of brain neurotransmitter systems at 2 month old rats progenies. Significant decrease in DA, 5-HT, NA concentrations and changes of their metabolites level were marked. Prenatal exposure to N-cholinolytic, gangleron to pregnant females at 9-11 and 12-14 gestation days exerted more significant long-term effect on neurotransmitter development, which leads to reduction of transmitter activity in the hippocamp and hypothalamus in comparison with a control progeny. These results indicate that M- and N-cholinolytics exposure during the "critical periods" of prenatal development (9-11 and 12-14 gestational days) results in long-term changes in development of neurotransmitter systems in the brain structure participating in regulation of behavioral and neuroendocrinal functions at rat male offspring.
cholinolytics, prenatal exposure, neurotransmitters, rat progeny, long-term effects.
1. Abreu-Villaca Y., Seidler F.J., Tate C.A. et al. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the response to nicotine administration in adolescence: effects on cholinergic systems during exposure and withdrawal // Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004. Vol.29, №5. P.879-890.
2. Aldridge J.E., Seidler F.J., Meyer A. et al. Serotonergic systems targeted by developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos: effects during different critical periods // Environ. Health Perspect. 2003. Vol.111. P.1736–1743
3. Azmitia E.C. Modern views on an ancient chemical: serotonin effects on cell proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis // Brain Res. Bull. 2001. Vol.56. P.413–424
4. Beer A., Slotkin T.A., Seidler F.J. et al. Nicotine Therapy in Adulthood Reverses the Synaptic and Behavioral Deficits Elicited by Prenatal Exposure to Phenobarbital // Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005. Vol.30. P.156–165
5. Dam K., Garcia S.J., Seidler F.J., Slotkin T.A. Neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters synaptic development and neuronal activity in cholinergic and catecholaminergic pathways // Dev. Brain Res. 1999. Vol.116. P.9–20
6. Dreyfus C.F. Neurotransmitters and neurotrophins collaborate to influence brain development // Perspect. Dev. Neurobiol. 1998. N 5. P.389–399
7. Icenogle L.M., Christopher N.C., Blackwelder W.P. et al. Behavioral alterations in adolescent and adult rats caused by a brief subtoxic exposure to chlorpyrifos during neurulation // Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2004. Vol.26. №1. P.95-101.
8. Levitt P., Harvey J.A., Friedman E. et al. New evidence for neurotransmitter influences on brain development // Trends Neurosci. 1997. Vol.20. P.269–274
9. Lichtensteiger W., Schlumpf M. Prenatal nicotine exposure: biochemical and neuroendocrine bases of behavioral dysfunction // Dev. Brain Dysfunct. 1993. №6. P.279-304.
10. Muneoka K., Ogawa E., Kamei K. et al. Prenatal nicotine exposure affects the development of the central serotonergic system as well as the dopaminergic system in rat offspring: involvement of route of drug administrations // Developmental Brain Research. 1997. Vol.102. P.117-126.
11. Qiao D., Seidler F.J., Padilla S., Slotkin T.A. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: what is the vulnerable period? // Environ. Health Perspect. 2002. Vol.110. P.1097–1103
12. Robinson S.E. Effect of Prenatal Opioid Exposure on Cholinergic Development // J. Biomed. Sci. 2000. N7. P.253–257
13. Slotkin T.A. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates // Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2004. Vol.198. P.132-151.
14. Steingart R.A., Abu-Roumi M., Newman M.E. et al. Neurobehavioral damage to cholinergic systems caused by prenatal exposure to heroin or phenobarbital: cellular mechanisms and the reversal of deficits by neural grafts // Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 2000.Vol.122. P.125–133.
15. Turlejski K. Evolutionary ancient roles of serotonin: longlasting regulat