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Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки
"Институт токсикологии Федерального медико-биологического агентства"
(ФГБУН ИТ ФМБА России)

Институт теоретической и экспериментальной биофизики Российской академии наук.

ООО "ИЦ КОМКОН".




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199406, Санкт-Петербург, ул.Гаванская, д. 49, корп.2

ISSN 1999-6314

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«
Vol. 21, Art. 54 (pp. 656-668)    |    2020       
»

The current status and future prospects for the development of acute toxalbumin poisoning treatment
State Scientific-research Test Institute of the Military Medicine, Russian Federation Defense Ministry, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.



Brief summary

In this review presented of modern approach to the treatment of toxalbumin acute poisoning by the example of ricin. The achievements in the development of means for unspecified and specified treatment are reported in the article. Perspective directions in toxalbumin acute intoxication treatment, that will lead to decrease of lethality.


Key words

toxalbumins, ricin, chemical safety, early treatment, antibody





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Reference list

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2. Kaland M., Schwartz W., Anderson B. Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers / Toxicon. 2015. Vol. 99. P. 125-129.


3. Worbs S. et al. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine - a summary of real cases / Toxins. 2011. Vol. 3. P. 1332-1372. doi: 10.3390/toxins3101332.


4. Roxas-Duncan V. I., Smith L.A. Of beans and beads: ricin and abrin in bioterrorism and biocrime / J. Bioterr. Biodef. 2011. Vol. 5. P. 1-20. doi: 10.4172/2157-2526.S2-002.


5. Sypotnickii M.V. Raspoznavanie porajenii ricinom / Prikl. toksikologiya. 2013. T. 4. N 1(9). S. 42-50.


6. Jackson L.S., Zhang Z., Tolleson W.H. Thermal stability of ricin in orange and apple juices / Journal of food science. 2010. Vol. 75. N 4. P. 65-71.


7. Zhang Z. et al. Thermal inactivation reaction rates for ricin are influenced by pH and carbohydrates / Food and chemical toxicology. 2013. Vol. 58. P. 116-123.


8. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ricin (from Ricinus communis) as undesirable substances in animal feed‐Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain / Efsa Journal. 2008. Vol. 6. N 9. P. 726.


9. Audi J. et al. Ricin poisoning. A comprehensive review / JAMA. 2005. Vol. 294. N 18. P. 2343-2351.


10. Hsiao Y.C., Ling Y.F, Weng K.L. Ricin and Abrin: A Comprehensive Review of Their Toxicity, Diagnosis, and Treatment / Toxinology. 2014. Vol. 15. N 7. P. 24-36. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6645-7_1-1.


11. Bhaskaran M. et al. Pathology of lethal and sublethal doses of aerosolized ricin in rhesus macaques / Toxicol. Pathol. 2014. Vol. 42. N 3. P. 573-581.


12. Leah G.D. Ricin Mechanism of Toxicity, Clinical Manifestation and Vaccine Development / J. of Toxicology. 2004. Vol. 42. N 2. P. 201-208.


13. Lombard S., Helmy M., Pieroni G. Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutrallipids / Biochem. J. 2001. Vol. 358. N 3. P. 773-781.


14. Lyjnikova E.A. Medicinskaya toksikologiya: nacionalnoe rykovodstvo. M.: GEOSTAR ─ Media, 2012. 928 c.


15. Kortepeter M. USAMRIID?s medical management of biological causalities. Maryland: Fort Detrick, 2001. 352 p.


16. Verougstrate N. et al. Lethal injection of a castor bean extract: ricinine quantification as a marker for ricin exposure using a validated LC-MS/MS method / J. Anal. Tox. 2019. Vol. 43. N 3. P. 1-5. doi: 10.1093/jat/bky100.


17. Assiri A. Ricin poisoning causing death after ingestion of herbal medicine / Ann. Saudi. Med. 2012. Vol. 32. N 3. P. 315-317.


18. Coopman V. et al. Suicidal death after injection of a castor bean extract (Ricinus communis L.) / Forensis. Sci. Int. 2009. Vol. 189. P. 13-20. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.04.019.


19. Wang C.F. et al. Early plasma exchange for treating ricin toxicity in children after castor bean ingestion / J. Clin. Apher. 2015. Vol. 30. N 3. R. 141-146. doi: 10.1002/jca.21351.


20. Wannemacher R. W., Anderson J. B. Inhalation ricin: aerosol procedures, toxicology and therapy / Inhalation toxicology. 2006. P. 973-980.


21. Dong N. et al. Monoclonal antibody, mAb 4C13, an effective detoxicant antibody against ricin poisoning / Vac. 2015. Vol. 33. N 32. P. 3836-3842. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.096.


22. O?Hara J.M. et al. Plant-based expression of a partially humanized neutralizing monoclonal directed against an immunodominant epitope on the ricin toxin a subunit / Vac. 2012. Vol. 30. N 7. P. 1239-1243.


23. Gal Y. et al. Treatments for Pulmonary Ricin Intoxication: Current Aspects and Future Prospects / Toxin. 2017. Vol. 9. N 10. P. 311-325. doi: 10.3390/toxins9100311.


24. Whitfield S. et al. Production, Characterisation and Testing of an Ovine Antitoxin against Ricin; Efficacy, Potency and Mechanisms of Action / Toxins. 2017. Vol. 9. N 10. P. 10-18.


25. Gal Y. et al. Antibody/doxycycline combined therapy for pulmonary ricinosis: Attenuation of inflammation improves survival of ricin-intoxicated mice / Toxicol.Rep. 2014. Vol. 1. P. 496-504. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.07.013.


26. Gal Y. et al. Potent Antiedematous and Protective Effects of Ciprofloxacin in Pulmonary Ricinosis / Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016. Vol. 60. N 12. P. 7153-7158.


27. Beyer N.H. et al. A mous model for ricin poisoning and for evaluating protective effect of antiricin antibody / Clinic. Tox. 2009. Vol. 47. P. 219-225. doi: 10.1080/15563650802716521.


28. Pincus S.H. et al. Role of fc in antibody-mediated protection from ricin toxin / Toxins. 2014. Vol. 6. P. 1512-1525.


29. Sully E.K. et al. Chimeric plantibody passively protects mice against aerosolized ricin challenge / Clin. Vac. Immunol. 2014. Vol. 21. P. 777-782.


30. Prigent J. et al. Neutralising antibodies against ricin toxin / PLoS. 2011. Vol. 6. P. 315-324.


31. Noy-Porat T. et al. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates / Toxin. 2016. Vol. 8. N 3. P. 64-79. doi: 10.3390/toxins8030064.


32. Hu W.G. et al. Conformation-dependent high-affinity potent ricin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies / BioMed Res. Int. 2010. Vol. 185. N 1. P. 729-737.


33. Respaud R. et al. Development of a drug delivery system for efficient alveolar delivery of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to treat pulmonary intoxication to ricin / J. Cont. Rel. 2016. Vol. 234. P. 21-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.05.0


Reference





1. Roy C.J. et al. Animal models of ricin toxicosis / Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2012. Vol. 357. P. 243-257. doi: 10.1007/82_2011_173.


2. Kaland M., Schwartz W., Anderson B. Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers / Toxicon. 2015. Vol. 99. P. 125-129.


3. Worbs S. et al. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine - a summary of real cases / Toxins. 2011. Vol. 3. P. 1332-1372. doi: 10.3390/toxins3101332.


4. Roxas-Duncan V. I., Smith L.A. Of beans and beads: ricin and abrin in bioterrorism and biocrime / J. Bioterr. Biodef. 2011. Vol. 5. P. 1-20. doi: 10.4172/2157-2526.S2-002.


5. Supotnitsky M.S. The recognicion of damage by ricin. Prikladnaja toksikologia = Applied toxicology / 2013. Vol. 4. N. 1(9). P. 42-50 [In Russian].


6. Jackson L.S., Zhang Z., Tolleson W.H. Thermal stability of ricin in orange and apple juices / Journal of food science. 2010. Vol. 75. N 4. P. 65-71.


7. Zhang Z. et al. Thermal inactivation reaction rates for ricin are influenced by pH and carbohydrates / Food and chemical toxicology. 2013. Vol. 58. P. 116-123.


8. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ricin (from Ricinus communis) as undesirable substances in animal feed‐Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain / Efsa Journal. 2008. Vol. 6. N 9. P. 726.


9. Audi J. et al. Ricin poisoning. A comprehensive review / JAMA. 2005. Vol. 294. N 18. P. 2343-2351.


10. Hsiao Y.C., Ling Y.F, Weng K.L. Ricin and Abrin: A Comprehensive Review of Their Toxicity, Diagnosis, and Treatment / Toxinology. 2014. Vol. 15. N 7. P. 24-36. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6645-7_1-1.


11. Bhaskaran M. et al. Pathology of lethal and sublethal doses of aerosolized ricin in rhesus macaques / Toxicol. Pathol. 2014. Vol. 42. N 3. P. 573-581.


12. Leah G.D. Ricin Mechanism of Toxicity, Clinical Manifestation and Vaccine Development / J. of Toxicology. 2004. Vol. 42. N 2. P. 201-208.


13. Lombard S., Helmy M., Pieroni G. Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutrallipids / Biochem. J. 2001. Vol. 358. N 3. P. 773-781.


14. Luzhnikov E. A. Medical toxicology: national guide. M.: GEOSTAR ─ Media, 2012. 928 p. [In Russian].


15. Kortepeter M. USAMRIID?s medical management of biological causalities. Maryland: Fort Detrick, 2001. 352 p.


16. Verougstrate N. et al. Lethal injection of a castor bean extract: ricinine quantification as a marker for ricin exposure using a validated LC-MS/MS method / J. Anal. Tox. 2019. Vol. 43. N 3. P. 1-5. doi: 10.1093/jat/bky100.


17. Assiri A. Ricin poisoning causing death after ingestion of herbal medicine / Ann. Saudi. Med. 2012. Vol. 32. N 3. P. 315-317.


18. Coopman V. et al. Suicidal death after injection of a castor bean extract (Ricinus communis L.) / Forensis. Sci. Int. 2009. Vol. 189. P. 13-20. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.04.019.


19. Wang C.F. et al. Early plasma exchange for treating ricin toxicity in children after castor bean ingestion / J. Clin. Apher. 2015. Vol. 30. N 3. R. 141-146. doi: 10.1002/jca.21351.


20. Wannemacher R. W., Anderson J. B. Inhalation ricin: aerosol procedures, toxicology and therapy / Inhalation toxicology. 2006. P. 973-980.


21. Dong N. et al. Monoclonal antibody, mAb 4C13, an effective detoxicant antibody against ricin poisoning / Vac. 2015. Vol. 33. N 32. P. 3836-3842. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.096.


22. O?Hara J.M. et al. Plant-based expression of a partially humanized neutralizing monoclonal directed against an immunodominant epitope on the ricin toxin a subunit / Vac. 2012. Vol. 30. N 7. P. 1239-1243.


23. Gal Y. et al. Treatments for Pulmonary Ricin Intoxication: Current Aspects and Future Prospects / Toxin. 2017. Vol. 9. N 10. P. 311-325. doi: 10.3390/toxins9100311.


24. Whitfield S. et al. Production, Characterisation and Testing of an Ovine Antitoxin against Ricin; Efficacy, Potency and Mechanisms of Action / Toxins. 2017. Vol. 9. N 10. P. 10-18.


25. Gal Y. et al. Antibody/doxycycline combined therapy for pulmonary ricinosis: Attenuation of inflammation improves survival of ricin-intoxicated mice / Toxicol.Rep. 2014. Vol. 1. P. 496-504. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.07.013.


26. Gal Y. et al. Potent Antiedematous and Protective Effects of Ciprofloxacin in Pulmonary Ricinosis / Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016. Vol. 60. N 12. P. 7153-7158.


27. Beyer N.H. et al. A mous model for ricin poisoning and for evaluating protective effect of antiricin antibody / Clinic. Tox. 2009. Vol. 47. P. 219-225. doi: 10.1080/15563650802716521.


28. Pincus S.H. et al. Role of fc in antibody-mediated protection from ricin toxin / Toxins. 2014. Vol. 6. P. 1512-1525.


29. Sully E.K. et al. Chimeric plantibody passively protects mice against aerosolized ricin challenge / Clin. Vac. Immunol. 2014. Vol. 21. P. 777-782.


30. Prigent J. et al. Neutralising antibodies against ricin toxin / PLoS. 2011. Vol. 6. P. 315-324.


31. Noy-Porat T. et al. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates / Toxin. 2016. Vol. 8. N 3. P. 64-79. doi: 10.3390/toxins8030064.


32. Hu W.G. et al. Conformation-dependent high-affinity potent ricin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies / BioMed Res. Int. 2010. Vol. 185. N 1. P. 729-737.


33. Respaud R. et al. Development of a drug delivery system for efficient alveolar delivery of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to treat pulmonary intoxication to ricin / J. Cont. Rel. 2016. Vol. 234. P. 21-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.05.0





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