Ѕ»ќћ≈ƒ»÷»Ќ— »… ∆”–ЌјЋ ћ≈ƒЋј…Ќ.–”
—одержание журнала

јрхив

–едакци€
”чредители

‘едеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение ЂЌаучно-клинический центр токсикологии имени академика —.Ќ. √оликова ‘едерального медико-биологического агентстваї


‘едеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки
»нститут теоретической и экспериментальной биофизики
–оссийской академии наук


ќќќ "»÷  ќћ ќЌ"

јдрес редакции и реквизиты

199406, —анкт-ѕетербург, ул.√аванска€, д. 49, корп.2

ISSN 1999-6314


 линическа€ медицина » “ерапи€ • »нфекционные болезни

“ом: 11
—тать€: « 47 »
—траницы:. 554-574
ќпубликована в журнале: декабрь 2010 г.

English version


є гос. регистрации: 0421000002047

»ммуногенетические факторы патогенеза HCV−инфекции

–оманов ј.ќ., Ѕел€ева “.¬., Ёсауленко ≈.¬.

—анкт-ѕетербургский государственный медицинский университет
им. акад. ».ѕ.†ѕавлова


–езюме
¬ирус гепатита — обладает высокой способностью к персистенции и вызывает хронический гепатит с повышенным риском развити€ цирроза. »ммунный ответ организма имеет уникальную роль, так как не только элиминирует вирус, но и вызывает повреждение печени. ¬ статье рассматриваютс€ иммуногенетические факторы, не относ€щиес€ к системе HLA, с целью показать как иммунна€ система хоз€ина взаимодействует с вирусными компонентами.


 лючевые слова
гепатит†—; цирроз; иммуногенетика, CTLA-4, MBL.



(стать€ в формате PDF. ƒл€ просмотра необходим Adobe Acrobat Reader)



открыть статью в новом окне

—писок литературы

1. Abrams J.R., Kelley S.L., Hayes E. et al. Blockade of T lymphocyte costimulation with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) reverses the cellular pathology of psoriatic plaques, including the activation of keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells // J. Exp. Med. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 192, є5. Ц –. 681 Ц 694.


2. Alter H.J., Seeff L.B. Recovery, persistence, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: a perspective on long-term outcome // Semin Liver Dis. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 20, є1. Ц P. 17 Ц 35.


3. Alves Pedroso M.L., Boldt A.B., Pereira-Ferrari L, et al. Mannan-binding lectin MBL2 gene polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C: association with the severity of liver fibrosis and response to interferon therapy // Clin. Exp. Immunol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 152, є2. Ц –. 258 Ц 264.


4. Bisbal C., Silverman R.H. Diverse functions of RNase L and implications in


pathology // Biochimie. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 89, є 6-7. Ц –. 789 Ц 798.


5. Bour-Jordan H., Bluestone J.A. Regulating the regulators: costimulatory signals


control the homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells // Immunol. Rev. Ц 2009. Vol. 229,


є1. Ц –. 41 Ц 66.


6. Brown E.E., Zhang M., Zarin-Pass R., et al. MBL2 and hepatitis C virus infection


among injection drug users // BMC Infect. Dis. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 1, є8. Ц –. 57.


7. Brown K.S., Ryder S.D., Irving W.L., et al. Mannan binding lectin and viral


hepatitis // Immunol. Lett. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 108, є1. Ц P. 34 Ц 44.


8. Carreno B.M., Bennett F., Chau T.A. et al. CTLA-4 (CD152) can inhibit T cell


activation by two different mechanisms depending on its level of cell surfaceexpression // J.


Immunol. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 165, є3. Ц P. 1352 Ц 1356.


9. Casey G., Neville P.J., Plummer S.J. et al. RNASEL Arg462Gln variant is


implicated in up to 13% of prostate cancer cases // Nat. Genet. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 32, є4. Ц –. 581 Ц 583.


10. Cedzynski M., Szemraj J., Swierzko A.S. et al. Mannan-binding lectin insufficiency


in children with recurrent infections of the respiratory system // Clin. Exp. Immunol. Ц 2004. Ц


Vol. 136, є2. Ц –. 304 Ц 311.


11. Chambers C.A., Sullivan T.J., Allison J.P. Lymphoproliferation in CTLA-4-


deficient mice is mediated by costimulation-dependent activation of CD4+ T cells // Immunity. Ц


1997. Ц Vol. 7, є6. Ц –. 885 Ц 895.


12. Chaplin D.D. Overview of the immune response // J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Ц 2010. Ц Vol. 125, є2, Suppl. 2. Ц –. 3 Ц 23.


13. Cho M.L., Kim J.Y., Ko H.J. et al. The MCP-1 promoter -2518 polymorphism in


Behcet's disease: correlation between allele types, MCP-1 production and clinical symptoms


among Korean patients // Autoimmunity. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 37, є1. Ц –. 77 Ц 80.


14. Collins M., Ling V., Carreno B.M. The B7 family of immune-regulatory ligands //


Genome. Biol. Ц 2005 Ц Vol. 6, є6. Ц –. 223.


15. Crawford A., Wherry E.J. The diversity of costimulatory and inhibitory receptor


pathways and the regulation of antiviral T cell responses // Curr. Opin. Immunol. Ц 2009. Ц


Vol. 21, є2. Ц –. 179 Ц 186.


16. Dariavach P., Mattei M.G., Golstein P., Lefranc MP. Human Ig superfamily CTLA-


4 gene: chromosomal localization and identity of protein sequence between murine and human


CTLA-4 cytoplasmic domains // Eur. J. Immunol. Ц 1988. Ц Vol. 18, є12. Ц –. 1901 Ц 1905.


17. Deshmane S.L., Kremlev S., Amini S., Sawaya B.E. Monocyte chemoattractant


protein-1 (MCP-1): an overview // J. Interferon Cytokine Res. Ц 2009. Ц Vol. 29, є6. Ц –. 313 Ц 326.


18. Dobaczewski M., Frangogiannis N.G. Chemokines and cardiac fibrosis // Front.


Biosci. Ц 2009. Ц Vol. 1, є1. Ц –. 391 Ц 405.


19. Donner H., Seidl C., Braun J. et al. CTLA4 gene haplotypes cannot protect from


IDDM in the presence of high-risk HLA DQ8 or DQ2 alleles in German families // Diabetes. Ц


1998. Ц Vol. 47, є7. Ц –. 1158 Ц 1160.


20. Dore G.J., Freeman A.J., Law M., Kaldor J.M. Is severe liver disease a common


outcome for people with chronic hepatitis C? // J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 17, є4. Ц –. 423 Ц 430.


21. Dumestre-Perard C., Ponard D., Arlaud G.J. et al. Evaluation and clinical interest of


mannan binding lectin function in human plasma // Mol. Immunol. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 39, є 7-8. Ц –. 465 Ц 473.


22. Dunkelberger J.R., Song W.C. Complement and its role in innate and adaptive


immune responses // Cel.l Res. Ц 2010. - Ц Vol. 20, є 1. Ц –. 34 Ц 50.


23. Dunning A.M., Ellis P.D., McBride S. A transforming growth factorbeta1 signal


peptide variant increases secretion in vitro and is associated with increased incidence of invasive


breast cancer // Cancer Res. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 63, є 10 Ц –. 2610 Ц 2615


24. Finzer P., Soto U., Delius H. et al. Differential transcriptional regulation of the


monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic HPV 18 positive cells: the role of the chromatin structure and AP-1 composition // Oncogene Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 19, є 29. Ц –. 3235 Ц 3244.


25. Friedman S.L. Liver fibrosis - from bench to bedside // J. Hepatol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 38, Suppl 1. Ц P. 38 Ц 53.


26. Garred P., Madsen H.O. Genetic Susceptibility to Sepsis: A Possible Role for


Mannose-binding Lectin // Curr. Infect Dis. Rep. Ц 2004 Ц Vol. 6, є 5. Ц –. 367 Ц 373.


27. Garred P., Pressler T., Lanng S. et al. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) therapy in an


MBL-deficient patient with severe cystic fibrosis lung disease // Pediatr. Pulmonol. Ц 2002. Ц


Vol. 33, є 3. Ц –. 201 -207.


28. Gewaltig J., Mangasser-Stephan K., Gartung C. et al. Association of


polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with the rate of progression of


HCV-induced liver fibrosis // Clin. Chim. Acta. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 316, є 1-2. Ц –. 83 Ц 94.


29. Glas J., Torok H.P., Tonenchi L. et al. The -2518 promotor polymorphism in the


MCP-1 gene is not associated with liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection //


Gastroenterology. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 126, є 7. Ц –. 1930 Ц 1931.


30. Gleizes P.E., Munger J.S., Nunes I. et al. TGF-beta latency: biological significance


and mechanisms of activation // Stem. Cells. Ц 1997. Ц Vol. 15, є 3. Ц –. 190 Ц 197.


31. Hardie W.D., Le Cras T.D., Jiang K. et al. Conditional expression of transforming


growth factor-alpha in adult mouse lung causes pulmonary fibrosis // Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell.


Mol. Physiol. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 286, є 4. Ц –. 741 Ц 749.


32. Hart M.L., Saifuddin M., Spear G.T. Glycosylation inhibitors and neuraminidase


enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding and neutralization by mannose-binding


lectin // J. Gen. Virol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 84, є 2. Ц –. 353 Ц 360.


33. Kilpatrick D.C., Delahooke T.E., Koch C., Turner M.L., Hayes P.C. Mannanbinding


lectin and hepatitis C infection // Clin. Exp. Immunol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 132, є 1 Ц –. 92 Ц 95.


34. Hodi F.S. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 // Clin. Cancer Res. Ц


2007. Ц Vol. 13, є 18, Suppel. 1. Ц –. 5238 Ц 5242.


35. Hokeness K.L., Kuziel W.A., Biron C.A., Salazar-Mather T.P. Monocyte


chemoattractant protein-1 and CCR2 interactions are required for IFN-alpha/beta-induced


inflammatory responses and antiviral defense in liver // J. Immunol. Ц 2005. Ц Vol. 174, є 3. Ц –. 1549 Ц 1556.


36. Ip W.K., Lau Y.L. Role of mannose-binding lectin in the innate defense against


Candida albicans: enhancement of complement activation, but lack of opsonic function, in


phagocytosis by human dendritic cells // J. Infect. Dis. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 190, є 3. Ц –. 632 Ц 640.


37. Karrer S., Bosserhoff A.K., Weiderer P. et al. The -2518 promotor polymorphism in


the MCP-1 gene is associated with systemic sclerosis // J. Invest. Dermatol. Ц 2005. Ц Vol. 124,


є 1. Ц –. 92 Ц 98.


38. Kelly P., Jack D.L., Naeem A. et al. Mannose-binding lectin is a component of


innate mucosal defense against Cryptosporidium parvum in AIDS // Gastroenterology. Ц 2000. Ц


Vol. 119, є 5. Ц –. 1236 Ц 1242.


39. Kinnman N., Andersson U., Hultcrantz R. In situ expression of transforming growth


factor-beta1-3, latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein and tumor necrosis factoralpha


in liver tissue from patients with chronic hepatitis C // Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Ц 2000. Ц


Vol. 35, є 12. Ц –. 1294 Ц 1300.


40. Kouki T., Gardine C.A., Yanagawa T., Degroot L.J. Relation of three


polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene in patients with GravesТdisease // J. Endocrinol. Invest. Ц


2002. Ц Vol. 25, є 3. Ц –. 208 Ц 213.


41. Koutsounaki E., Goulielmos G.N., Koulentaki M., et al. Mannose-binding lectin


MBL2 gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis C virus-infected patients // J. Clin.


Immunol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 28, є 5. Ц –. 495 Ц 500.


42. Larsen F., Madsen H.O., Sim R.B. et al. Disease-associated mutations in human


mannose-binding lectin compromise oligomerization and activity of the final protein // J. Biol.


Chem. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 14, є 20. Ц –. 21302 Ц 21311.


43. Le Roy F., Silhol M., Salehzada T., Bisbal C. Regulation of mitochondrial mRNA


stability by RNase L is translation-dependent and controls IFNalpha-induced apoptosis // Cell.


Death Differ. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 14, є 8. Ц –. 1406 Ц 1413.


44. Letendre S., Marquie-Beck J., Singh K.K. et al. The monocyte chemotactic


protein-1 -2578G allele is associated with elevated MCP-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal


fluid // J. Neuroimmunol. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 157, є (1-2). Ц –. 193 Ц 196.


45. Ligers A., Teleshova N., Masterman T. et al. CTLA-4 gene expression is influenced


by promoter and exon 1 polymorphisms // Genes Immun. Ц 2001. Ц Vol. 2, є 3. Ц –. 145 Ц 152.


46. Luster AD. Chemokines - chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation // N.


Engl. J. Med. Ц 1998. Ц Vol. 338, є 7. Ц –. 436 Ц 445.


47. Markiewski M.M., Lambris J.D. The role of complement in inflammatory diseases


from behind the scenes into the spotlight // Am. J. Pathol. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 171, є 3. Ц –. 715 Ц 727.


48. Martin P., Lerner A., Johnson L. et al. Inherited mannose-binding lectin deficiency


as evidenced by genetic and immunologic analyses: association with severe recurrent


infections // Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 91, є 4. Ц –. 386 Ц 392.


49. Matsushita M., Hijikata M., Ohta Y. et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and mutations


of mannose-binding lectin gene MBL // Arch. Virol. Ц 1998. Ц Vol. 143, є 4. Ц –. 645 Ц 651.


50. Matsushita M., Hijikata M., Matsushita M. et al. Association of mannose-binding


lectin gene haplotype LXPA and LYPB with interferon-resistant hepatitis C virus infection in


Japanese patients // J. Hepatol. Ц 1998. Ц Vol. 29, є 5. Ц –. 695 Ц 700


51. Maurer M., Loserth S., Kolb-Maurer A. et al. A polymorphism in the human


cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene (exon 1+49) alters T-cell activation //


Immunogenetics. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 54, є 1. Ц –. 1 Ц 8


52. Muhlbauer M., Bosserhoff A.K., Hartmann A. et al. A novel MCP-1 gene


polymorphism is associated with hepatic MCP-1 expression and severity of HCV-related liver


disease // Gastroenterology. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 125, є4. Ц –. 1085 Ц 1093.


53. Nahon P, Sutton A., Rufat P., et al. Chemokine system polymorphisms, survival


and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis //


World J. Gastroenterol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 14, є 5. Ц –. 713 Ц 719.


54. Najafian N., Sayegh M.H. CTLA4-Ig: a novel immunosuppressive agent // Expert.


Opin. Investig. Drugs. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 9, є 9. Ц –. 2147 Ц 2157.


55. NIH Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C: 2002 NIH Consensus


and State-of-the-Science Statements. Ц 2002, Ц Vol. 19, є3, Ц –.30.


56. Oaks M.K., Hallett K.M., Penwell R.T. et al. A native soluble form of CTLA-4 //


Cell Immunol. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 201, є 2. Ц –. 144 Ц 153.


57. Ostrov D.A., Shi W., Schwartz J.C. et al. Structure of murine CTLA-4 and its role


in modulating T cell responsiveness // Science. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 290, є 5492. Ц –. 816 Ц 819.


58. Pangburn M.K., Ferreira V.P., Cortes C. Discrimination between host and


pathogens by the complement system // Vaccine. Ц 2008. Vol. 26, Suppl 8. Ц P. 15 Ц 21.


59. Park Y.J., Chung H.K., Park D.J. et al. Polymorphism in the promoter and exon 1 of


thecytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 gene associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Koreans // Thyroid. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 10, є 6. Ц –. 453 Ц 459.


60. Patel K., Muir A.J., McHutchison J.G. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis


C infection // BMJ. Ц 2006. Ц Vol. 332, є 7548. Ц –. 1013 Ц 1017.


61. Peterslund N.A., Koch C., Jensenius J.C., Thiel S. Association between deficiency


of mannose-binding lectin and severe infections after chemotherapy // Lancet. Ц 2001. Ц


Vol. 358, є 9282. Ц –. 637 Ц 638.


62. Petri B., Phillipson M., Kubes P. The physiology of leukocyte recruitment: an in


vivo perspective // J. Immunol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 180, є 10. Ц –. 6439 Ц 6446.


63. Powell E.E., Edwards-Smith C.J., Hay J.L., Host genetic factors influence disease


progression in chronic hepatitis C // Hepatology. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 31, є 4. Ц –. 828 Ц 833


64. Poynard T., Ratziu V., Benmanov Y., Fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C:


detection and significance // Semin. Liver Dis. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 20, є 1. Ц –. 47 Ц 55.


65. Randall R.E., Goodbourn S. Interferons and viruses: an interplay between


induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures // J. Gen. Virol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 89, є 1. Ц –. 1 Ц 47.


66. Ray S., Broor S.L., Vaishnav Y. et al. Transforming growth factor beta in hepatitis


C virus infection: in vivo and in vitro findings // J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 18, є 4. Ц –. 393 Ц 403.


67. Rovin B.H., Lu L., Saxena R. A novel polymorphism in the MCP-1 gene regulatory


region that influences MCP-1 expression // Biochem. Bioph. Res. Com. Ц 1999. Ц Vol. 259. Ц –. 344 Ц 348.


68. Roy S., Knox K., Segal S. et al. MBL genotype and risk of invasive pneumococcal


disease: a case-control study // Lancet. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 359, є 9317. Ц –. 1569 Ц 1573.


69. Rudd C.E., Taylor A., Schneider H. CD28 and CTLA-4 coreceptor expression and


signal transduction // Immunol. Rev. Ц 2009. Ц Vol. 229, є 1. Ц –. 12 Ц 26.


70. Sadler A.J., Williams B.R. Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors // Nat. Rev.


Immunol. Ц 2008. Ц Vol. 8, є 7. Ц –. 559 Ц 568.


71. Sasaki K., Tsutsumi A., Wakamiya N. et al. Mannose-binding lectin


polymorphisms in patients with hepatitis C virus infection // Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Ц 2000. Ц


Vol. 35, є 9. Ц –. 960 Ц 965.


72. Segat L., Silva Vasconcelos L.R., et al. Association of polymorphisms in the first


exon of mannose binding lectin gene (MBL2) in Brazilian patients with HCV infection // Clin. Immunol. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 124, є 1. Ц –. 13 Ц 17.


73. Seki E., de Minicis S., Inokuchi S., Taura K., Miyai K., van Rooijen N., Schwabe


R.F., Brenner D.A. CCR2 promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice // Hepatology. Ц 2009. Ц Vol. 50,


є 1. Ц –. 185 Ц 197.


74. Si Y., Tsou C.L., Croft K., Charo I.F. CCR2 mediates hematopoietic stem and


progenitor cell trafficking to sites of inflammation in mice // J. Clin. Invest. Ц 2010. Ц Vol. 120,


є 4. Ц –. 1192 Ц 1203.


75. Silverman R.H. A scientific journey through the 2-5A/RNase L system // Cytokine


Growth. Factor Rev. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 18, є 5-6. Ц –. 381 Ц 388.


76. Silverman R.H. Viral encounters with 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and RNase L


during the interferon antiviral response // J. Virol. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 81, є 23. Ц –. 12720 Ц 12729.


77. Soo H.M., Garzino-Demo A., Hong W. et al. Expression of a full-length hepatitis C


virus cDNA up-regulates the expression of CC chemokines MCP-1 and RANTES // Virology. Ц


2002. Ц Vol. 303, є 2. Ц –. 253 Ц 277.


78. Sumiya M., Super M., Tabona P. et al. Molecular basis of opsonic defect in


immunodeficient children // Lancet. Ц 1991. Ц Vol. 337, є 8757. Ц –. 1569 Ц 1570.


79. Summerfield J.A., Ryder S., Sumiya M. et al. Mannose binding protein gene


mutations associated with unusual and severe infections in adults // Lancet. Ц 1995. Ц Vol. 345,


є 8954. Ц –. 886 Ц 889.


80. Summerfield J.A., Sumiya M., Levin M., Turner M.W. Association of mutations in


mannose binding protein gene with childhood infection in consecutive hospital series // BMJ. Ц


1997. Ц Vol. 314, є 7089. Ц –. 1229 Ц 1232.


81. Tag C.G., Mengsteab S., Hellerbrand C. et al. Analysis of the transforming growth


factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) codon 25 gene polymorphism by LightCycler-analysis in patients with


chronic hepatitis C infection // Cytokine. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 24, є 5. Ц –. 173 Ц 181.


82. Taylor A.W. Review of the activation of TGF-beta in immunity // J. Leukoc. Biol. Ц


2009. Ц Vol. 85, є 1. Ц –. 29 Ц 33.


83. Terai I., Kobayashi K., Matsushita M. et al. Relationship between gene


polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and two molecular forms of MBL // Eur. J.


Immunol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 33, є 10. Ц –. 2755 Ц 2763.


84. Thompson C.B., Allison J.P. The emerging role of CTLA-4 as an immune


attenuator // Immunity. Ц 1997. Ц Vol. 7, є 4. Ц –. 445 Ц 450.


85. Vaidya B., Oakes E.J., Imrie H. et al. CTLA4 gene and Graves' disease: association


of Graves' disease with the CTLA4 exon 1 and intron 1 polymorphisms, but not with the


promoter polymorphism // Clin. Endocrinol. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 58, є 6. Ц –. 732 Ц 735.


86. Valdimarsson H., Stefansson M., Vikingsdottir T. et al. Reconstitution of


opsonizing activity by infusion of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to MBL-deficient humans //


Scand. J. Immunol. Ц 1998. Ц Vol. 48, є 2. Ц –. 116 Ц 123.


87. Valdimarsson H., Vikingsdottir T., Bang P. et al. Human plasma-derived mannosebinding


lectin: a phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study // Scand. J. Immunol. Ц 2004. Ц


Vol. 59, є 1. Ц –. 97 Ц 102.


88. Valdimarsson H. Infusion of plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin (MBL) into


MBL-deficient humans // Biochem. Soc. Trans. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 31, є 4. Ц –. 768 Ц 769.


89. van de Wetering J.K., van Golde L.M., Batenburg J.J. Collectins: players of the


innate immune system // Eur. J. Biochem. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 271, є 7. Ц –. 1229 Ц 1249.


90. Van Parijs L., Abbas A.K. Homeostasis and self-tolerance in the immune system:


turning lymphocytes off // Science. Ц 1998. Ц Vol. 280, є 5361. Ц –. 243 Ц 248.


91. Verrecchia F., Mauviel A. Transforming growth factor-beta and fibrosis // World J.


Gastroenterol. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 13, є 22. Ц –. 3056 Ц 3062.


92. Vidigal P.G., Germer J.J., Zein N.N. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10, tumor


necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta1 genes in chronic hepatitis C patients


treated with interferon and ribavirin // J. Hepatol. Ц 2002. Ц Vol. 36, є 2. Ц –. 271 Ц 277.


93. Wang H., Mengsteab S., Tag C.G. et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 gene


polymorphisms are associated with progression of liver fibrosis in Caucasians with chronic


hepatitis C infection // World J G.astroenterol. Ц 2005. Ц Vol. 11, є 13. Ц –. 1929 Ц 1936.


94. Wang S., Chen L. T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family //


Cell. Mol. Immunol. Ц 2004. Ц Vol. 1, є 1. Ц –. 37 Ц 42.


95. Washenberger C.L., Han J.Q., Kechris K.J., Jha B.K., Silverman R.H., Barton D.J.


Hepatitis C virus RNA: dinucleotide frequencies and cleavage by RNase L // Virus Res. Ц 2007. Ц Vol. 130, є 1Ц2. Ц –. 85 Ц 95.


96. Wynn T.A. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis // J. Pathol. Ц 2008.


Ц Vol. 214, є 2. Ц –. 199 Ц 210.


97. Xiang Y., Wang Z., Murakami J. et al. Effects of RNase L mutations associated


with prostate cancer on apoptosis induced by 2',5'-oligoadenylates // Cancer Res. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 63, є 20. Ц –. 6795 Ц 67801.


98. Yee L.J., Perez K.A., Tang J. et al. Association of CTLA4 polymorphisms with


sustained response to interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection // J.


Infect. Dis. Ц 2003. Ц Vol. 187, є 8. Ц –. 1264 Ц 1271.


99. Yokota M., Ichihara S., Lin T.L. et al. Association of a T29-->C polymorphism of


the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to myocardial infarction in


Japanese // Circulation. Ц 2000. Ц Vol. 101, є 24. Ц –. 2783 Ц 2787